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Perro Salchicha Breed Description

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Breed Organization

Dachshund Club of America

Native Country
Germany

Other Names
Standard Dachshund, Miniature Dachshund, Rabbit Dachshund, Toy Dachshund, Kaninchen, Doxie, Wiener Dog, Little Hot Dog, Hotdog Dog, Sausage Dog, Long Dog, Little Burrow Dog, Earth Dog, Badger Dog, Dacksel, Teckel, Tekkel Doxie, Bassotto, Sosis, Worshond, Taksis, Dachshund, Zwergdachshund

Life Expectancy
Approximately 12-15 Years

Litter Size
Average 3-4 Puppies

Breed Group
AKC Hound

General Description

A typical dachshund is long-bodied and muscular, with short, stubby legs. Its front paws are unusually large and paddle-shaped, for extreme digging. Long coated dachshunds have a silky coat and short featherings on legs and ears. It has skin that is loose enough not to tear while tunneling in tight burrows to chase prey. The dachshund has a deep chest that provides increased lung capacity for stamina when hunting prey underground. Its snout is long with an increased nose area that absorbs odors. There are three types of dachshund, which can be classified by their coats: short-haired, called "smooth"; long-haired; and wire-haired.

The standard size dachshund was bred to scent, chase, and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund was developed to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In the American West they have also been used to hunt prairie dogs. Today, they are bred for conformation shows and as family pets. Some dachshunds participate in earthdog trials. According to the AKC, the dachshund continues to remain one of the top 10 dog breeds in the United States.

There are three dachshund coat varieties: smooth coat (short hair), long-haired, and wire-haired. Longhaired dachshunds have a silky coat and short featherings on legs and ears. Wire-haired dachshunds are the least common coat variety in the United States (although it is the most common in Germany) and the most recent coat to appear in breeding standards. Dachshunds have a wide variety of colors and patterns, the most common one being red. Their base coloration can be single-colored (either red or cream), tan pointed (black and tan, chocolate and tan, blue and tan, or isabella and tan), and in wire-haired dogs, a color referred to as wildboar. Patterns such as dapple (merle), sable, brindle and piebald also can occur on any of the base colors. Dachshunds in the same litter may be born in different coat colors depending on the genetic makeup of the parents.

The dominant color in the breed is red, followed by black and tan. Tan pointed dogs have tan (or cream) markings over the eyes, ears, paws, and tail. The reds range from coppers to deep rusts, with or without somewhat common black hairs peppered along the back, face and ear edges, lending much character and an almost burnished appearance; this is referred to among breeders and enthusiasts as an "overlay" or "sabling". Sabling should not be confused with a more unusual coat color referred to as sable. At a distance, a sable dachshund looks somewhat like a black and tan dog. Upon closer examination, however, one can observe that along the top of the dog's body, each hair is actually banded with red at the base near the skin transitioning to mostly black along the length of the strand. An additional striking coat marking is the brindle pattern. "Brindle" refers to dark stripes over a solid background—usually red. If a dachshund is brindled on a dark coat and has tan points, it will have brindling on the tan points only. Even one single, lone stripe of brindle is a brindle. If a dachshund has one single spot of dapple, it is a dapple.

The Dachshund Club of America (DCA) and the American Kennel Club (AKC) consider both the piebald pattern and the double dapple (double merle) pattern to be nonstandard. However, both types continue to be shown and sometimes even win in the conformation ring.

Dogs that are double-dappled have the merle pattern of a dapple, but with distinct white patches that occur when the dapple gene expresses itself twice in the same area of the coat. The DCA excluded the wording "double-dapple" from the standard in 2007 and now strictly uses the wording "dapple" as the double dapple gene is commonly responsible for blindness and deafness.


Breed Standard

Head: Fine lines, elongated and narrowing toward the nose. Slightly arched skull. Stop not pronounced. Slightly arched, narrow muzzle. Finely chiseled nose of black or brown color depending on coat color. Very well developed jaw bones. Tight lips.
Ears: Set on high. Rounded at the tips and hanging against the cheeks.
Eyes: Medium size, oval. Reddish brown to black-brown color. Walleyes permitted in grays and harlequins.
Body: Long. Muscular, dry neck without dewlap. Powerful, fairly prominent sternum. Deep, broad chest. When viewed from the front, rib cage is oval. Fairly flat ribs. Belly well tucked up. Long, rounded, compact croup slopes very slightly to the root of the tail.
Tail: Not too curved and not carried too gaily.
Hair: Smooth variety: flat and smooth.Wirehaired variety: dense with undercoat. Mustache, bushy eyebrows, smooth and short, flat on the ears.Longhaired: soft, flat, slightly wavy (like an Irish Setter). Longer on the throat, body, ears, upper legs, and tail (feathering).
Coat: Smooth variety: Single color - red, golden red, golden with or without mixture of black hairs. Bi-color - Black, brown, gray, white on extremities, tan with markings above the eyes, on the sides of the muzzle, on the forechest, upper legs, and feet, etc. Harlequin – Light brown, light gray, or white background with irregular dark brown, golden, golden red, or black spots.Wirehaired variety: All colors permissible.Longhaired variety: Same as smooth variety.
Size: 26 to 37 cm, depending on variety.
Weight: Standard: less than 9 kg; ideally 6.5 to 7 kg; ideally 6,5 to 7 kg (14,3-15,5 lb).Miniature: less than 4 kg at eighteen months. Diameter of chest less than 35 cm.Kaninchen: less than 3.5 kg. Diameter of chest less than 30 cm.

History

The FCI has dedicated an entire group (Group 4) to this hunting dog. There are three varieties of Dachshunds: Standard, Miniature, and Rabbit. Each variety is divided into three types according to coat: Smooth (Kurzhaar), longhaired (Langhaar), and wirehaired (Rauhhaar). The origins of the Dachshund have been obscured by time. The smooth variety is the oldest and is thought to have been produced by crossing a short Jura Bruno with a pinscher. The smooth Dachshund gave rise to the other two varieties. Type was fixed for the longhaired variety in the seventeenth century. The wirehaired variety was created in late nineteenth century by crossing the smooth Dachshund, the schnauzer, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier, and perhaps the Scottish Terrier. The first standard for the breed was writen in 1879. The Deutscher Teckel Club (German Dachshund Club) was formed in 1888. The standard variety (particularly the wirehaired standard) is used as a scenthound for large game, hare, and rabbit, as well as an earth dog for fox and badger. The Kaninchen (Rabbit Dachshund) was created specifically for hunting rabbit. In the early twentieth century, fanciers preferred the smooth variety, then later turned their favor to the longhaired variety. Today, the wirehaired Dachshund is the most popular.

Behavior

This robust, courageous dog has great endurance, but does not always have a good disposition. The Dachshund is independent, belligerent, has a tendency to bite, and tries to exert his dominance over other dogs. His habit of barking at the least noise makes him a good guard dog. The Dachshund is affectionate and cheerful, but tends to be possessive and often jealous. The smooth variety is the most energetic, while the wirehaired variety is the most rustic and has the greatest hunting instinct. The longhaired variety is the calmest of the three. All Dachshunds must receive firm but gentle training from a very young age.

The Dachshund is well-suited to life as a house dog, particularly the longhaired variety. However, this small dog needs plenty of exercise to maintain his mental health. The wirehaired and longhaired varieties require regular brushing and combing.

Dachshunds can be difficult to housebreak, and patience and consistency are often needed in this endeavor.

According to the American Kennel Club's breed standards, "the dachshund is clever, lively and courageous to the point of rashness, persevering in above and below ground work, with all the senses well-developed. Any display of shyness is a serious fault." Their temperament and body language give the impression that they do not know or care about their relatively small size. Like many small hunting dogs, they will challenge a larger dog. Indulged dachshunds may become snappy or extremely obstinate.

Many dachshunds do not like unfamiliar people, and many will growl or bark at them. Although the dachshund is generally an energetic dog, some are sedate. This dog's behavior is such that it is not the dog for everyone. A bored, untrained dachshund will become destructive. If raised improperly and not socialized at a young age, dachshunds can become aggressive or fearful. They require a caring, loving owner who understands their need for entertainment and exercise.

Dachshunds may not be the best pets for small children. Like any dog, dachshunds need a proper introduction at a young age. Well-trained dachshunds and well-behaved children usually get along fine. Otherwise, they may be aggressive and bite an unfamiliar child, especially one that moves quickly around them or teases them. However, many dachshunds are very tolerant and loyal to children within their family, but these children should be mindful of the vulnerability of the breed's back.

Function

Hunting Dog, Guard Dog, Pet.

Health

The breed is prone to spinal problems, especially intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), due in part to an extremely long spinal column and short rib cage. The risk of injury may be worsened by obesity, jumping, rough handling, or intense exercise, which place greater strain on the vertebrae. About 20–25% of dachshunds will develop IVDD. Dachshunds with a number of calcified intervertebral discs at a young age have a higher risk of developing disc disease in later life. In addition, studies have shown that development of calcified discs is highly heritable in the breed. An appropriate screening programme for IVDD has been identified by Finnish researchers and a UK IVDD screening programme has been developed for breeders with the aim to reduce prevalence of spinal problems.

Treatment consists of combinations of crate confinement and courses of anti-inflammatory medications (steroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like carprofen and meloxicam), or chronic pain medications, like tramadol. Serious cases may require surgery to remove the troublesome disk contents. A dog may need the aid of a cart to get around if paralysis occurs.

A minimally invasive procedure called "percutaneous laser disk ablation" has been developed at the Oklahoma State University Veterinary Hospital. Originally, the procedure was used in clinical trials only on dachshunds that had suffered previous back incidents. Since dachshunds are prone to back issues, the goal is to expand this treatment to dogs in a normal population.

In addition to back problems, the breed is prone to patellar luxation where the kneecap can become dislodged. Dachshunds may also be affected by osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease). The condition seems to be mainly limited to wire-haired Dachshunds, with 17% being carriers. A genetic test is available to allow breeders to avoid breeding carriers to carriers. In such pairings, each puppy will have a 25% chance of being affected.

In some double dapples, there are varying degrees of vision and hearing loss, including reduced or absent eyes. Not all double dapples have problems with their eyes and/or ears, which may include degrees of hearing loss, full deafness, malformed ears, congenital eye defects, reduced or absent eyes, partial or full blindness, or varying degrees of both vision and hearing problems; but heightened problems can occur due to the genetic process in which two dapple genes cross, particularly in certain breeding lines. Dapple genes, which are dominant genes, are considered "dilution" genes, meaning whatever color the dog would have originally carried is lightened, or diluted, randomly; two dominant "dilution" genes can cancel each other out, or "cross", removing all color and producing a white recessive gene, essentially a white mutation. When occurring genetically within the eyes or ears, this white mutation can be detrimental to development, causing hearing or vision problems.

Other dachshund health problems include hereditary epilepsy, granulomatous meningoencephalitis, dental issues, Cushing's syndrome, thyroid and autoimmune problems, various allergies and atopies, and various eye conditions including cataracts, glaucoma, progressive retinal atrophy, corneal ulcers, nonucerative corneal disease, sudden acquired retinal degeneration, and cherry eye. Dachshunds are also 2.5 times more likely than other breeds of dogs to develop patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital heart defect. Dilute color dogs (Blue, Isabella, and Cream) are very susceptible to color dilution alopecia, a skin disorder that can result in hair loss and extreme sensitivity to sun. Since the occurrence and severity of these health problems is largely hereditary, breeders are working to eliminate these.

Factors influencing the litter size of puppies and the proportion of stillborn puppies per litter were analyzed in normally sized German dachshunds. The records analyzed contained data on 42,855 litters. It was found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression. It was also found that young and older dams had smaller litter sizes and more stillborn puppies than middle-aged dams.


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